怎樣寫文獻綜述?

問題描述:文獻綜述都是大牛寫的嗎?
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搞數學的體育生:

如何寫文獻綜述從三個方面來談:
文獻綜述的目的、來源以及對文獻的有機整合
一、文獻綜述的目的
總的來說,文獻綜述有以下幾個目的:
1.總結了與自己的課題相關的研究成果,包括每個研究所涉及的具體問題、研究思路以及研究結果等;
2.在總結的基礎上,作者會通過文獻綜述將所綜述的每一個研究與整個文獻相關聯,並且對每一個研究在文獻中的貢獻加以評述,比如填補了文獻中的空白…等等;
3.文獻綜述通過對相關文獻的回顧建立了一個研究的框架體系。

文獻綜述就好比是一幅地圖,它將文獻中的相關研究納入這張圖中。通過這張圖,綜述的作者清楚地描繪出了文獻中每一個研究處在文獻中的什麼部位、和其他研究的距離以及方位。最後,作者會在地圖中清晰地標識出自己的研究將處於什麼位置,並且告訴讀者為什麼要進行那麼一個位置的研究。

二、文獻的來源
著名學者Burns在總結自己進行學術研究,特別是文獻綜述的經驗時,提出較好的方法是首先找到一些初步的文獻並從中得到有價值的線索,這里所指的初步文獻包括教科書和一些學者在相關領域進行的文獻綜述。

在這個基礎上,可以進一步查找一些後續的文獻,這些文獻更多地來自一些學術期刊、學術會議的論文集、學位論文、工作論文等,然後進行詳細的文獻綜述。

這里就不多說了

三、對文獻的有機整合
在寫作文獻綜述的過程中,首先需要對文獻中的每一篇文章進行很好的總結和評論。就每一篇文章,最好能夠做一個讀書筆記,最後將這些筆記進行綜合併最終形成完整的文獻綜述。

閱讀每一篇文獻,不僅僅要對其中重要的結論和啟示進行記錄和總結,並且還應該有批判性和建設性的評價,比如找出文獻的缺陷。

具體來說,在閱讀每一篇文獻時,需要考慮
哪些是該文獻所沒有回答的問題、
研究可能存在哪些方法上的問題、
所提出的對未來研究的建議是什麼等。


查爾斯沃思論文潤色:

重溫John W. Creswell的文獻綜述五步法

John W. Creswell

美大陸布拉斯加大學林肯分校教育人文學院混合研究方法學院院長–教授,混合研究方法創始人之一。創辦《混合研究方法》期刊,現任國際混合研究法研究協會主席,被稱為「質性分析的國際泰斗」。

John W. Creswell在質性分析領域的貢獻自然不必多說,而在文獻綜述方面他也曾提出過幾個必備的因素模型,被許多學者津津樂道,也值得大家去借鏡學習,今天讓我們一起來重溫經典的John W. Creswell 文獻綜述五步法。

John W. Creswell 認為文獻綜述應由五部分組成,如下:

1、序言

2、主題1(關於自變量的)

3、主題2(關於因變量的)

4、主題3(關於自變量和因變量兩方面闡述的研究)

5、總結

序言

序言是對文獻綜述告訴讀者文獻綜述所涉及的幾個部分,這一段是關於章節構成的陳述。

綜述主題1

提出關於「自變量或多個自變量」的學術文獻。在幾個自變量中,只考慮幾個小部分或只關注幾個重要的單一變量。記住僅論述關於自變量的文獻。這種模式可以使關於自變量的文獻和因變量的文獻分開分別綜述,讀者讀起來清晰分明。

綜述主題2

融合了與「因變量或多個因變量」的學術文獻,雖然有多種因變量,但是只寫每一個變量的小部分或僅關注單一的、重要的因變量。

綜述主題3

包含了自變量與因變量的關系的學術文獻。這是我們研究方案中最棘手的部分。這部分應該相當短小,並且包括了與計劃研究的主題最為接近的研究。或許沒有關於研究主題的文獻,那就要盡可能找到與主題相近的部分,或者綜述在更廣泛的層面上提及的與主題相關的研究。

總結

強調最重要的研究,抓住綜述中重要的主題,指出為什麼我們要對這個主題做更多的研究。其實這里不僅是要對文獻綜述進行總結,更重要的是找到你要從事的這個研究的基石,也就是你的研究的出發點。

關於以上五步的最早記述者焦建利教授看來:這五步中最難的部分是第四步,其原因是受到閱讀量及研究分析的深入程度限制,因此學者們在沒有找到更好的文獻綜述方法時,尤其要在這五步法中的第四步多下下功夫。


三仙二老:

關於學術整理,
首先是學術整理的目的。
學術整理的目的是梳理整個學術界關於你所研究課題或對象的已經取得的研究成果。找出之前研究活動的重點、特點,其目的是為了自己的將要進行的研究活動找到準確的切入點。

其次是學術整理的過程和方法。
學術整理的第一步是學術搜索,即將與你所研究課題或對象相關的學術成果進行搜索、積累。一般來說這些成果按照形式可以分為論文類、著作類。按照時間可分成古代研究成果(以清末為斷限);近現代研究成果;建國以來的研究成果。按照與所研究對象的相關程度可分為完全一致、重點相似和一般相關三種。

第二步是在搜索和分類的基礎上,大量閱讀文獻。這里需要注意的是閱讀方式,按照與所研究對象的相關程度,完全一致類的要逐字逐句的閱讀,注意作者的寫作背景、寫作動機、論證過程、最後結論,特別是作業引用的文獻資料的出處和版本。重點相關類的要注意閱讀文章的摘要,了解其主要觀點、立場和最後結論,也要注意作者所選用的文獻資料出處和版本。一般相關的文章,就不用認真閱讀了,只要了解其大意和結論就好。

需要指出的是,閱讀文獻是學術回顧的最重要步驟,這里不僅僅要總結出前人的研究重點、研究特點和研究結論,還要注意前人研究的文獻資料(其一,這些資料他們用得,你也可以用得,積累文獻可以拓展文章引用資料的詳實程度,這是歷史學論文的重要步驟,常說的一句話叫「孤證不立」,我們在行文中要避免孤證;其二,當你看到了前人所用文獻範圍後,你也可以自己去拓展本課題的文獻範圍,尋找更多的文獻去說明問題,文獻範圍的拓展也可以當作學位論文的創新點之一,當然了,相同文獻的不同版本是不算的。)

閱讀文獻的過程還需要指出的是,在你閱讀過程中,可能會發現前人研究的錯誤和商榷之處,這種情況就非常理想了,你可以在之後你的論文中對於前人的疏漏和商榷之處進行批駁和指正,這個環節的術語叫發覆,即發前人之覆。如果有這樣的情況,你的論文就是非常出彩的論文了。

最後我再說一點個人經驗,通過閱讀文獻,發現自己當初對於擬研究課題的設想和研究方嚮往往有人已經捷足先登了,這是常見的現象,但不嚴重,因為大量閱讀文獻後,你就會重新找到新的研究方向,這個時候就需要重新修改研究計劃書(大陸叫選題論證或開題報告)了。而這次的修改才是研究計劃書的最後定版。


裴迪:

引自How to write a literature review

How to write a literature review


What is a literature review?

The aim of a literature review is to show your reader (your tutor) that you have read, and have a good grasp of, the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field. This work may be in any format, including online sources. It may be a separate assignment, or one of the introductory sections of a report, dissertation or thesis. In the latter cases in particular, the review will be guided by your research objective or by the issue or thesis you are arguing and will provide the framework for your further work.

It is very important to note that your review should not be simply a description of what others have published in the form of a set of summaries, but should take the form of a critical discussion, showing insight and an awareness of differing arguments, theories and approaches. It should be a synthesis and analysis of the relevant published work, linked at all times to your own purpose and rationale.

According to Caulley (1992) of La Trobe University, the literature review should:

• compare and contrast different authors’ views on an issue
• group authors who draw similar conclusions
• criticise aspects of methodology
• note areas in which authors are in disagreement
• highlight exemplary studies
• highlight gaps in research
• show how your study relates to previous studies
• show how your study relates to the literature in general
• conclude by summarising what the literature says

The purposes of the review are:

• to define and limit the problem you are working on
• to place your study in an historical perspective
• to avoid unnecessary duplication
• to evaluate promising research methods
• to relate your findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research

A good literature review, therefore, is critical of what has been written, identifies areas of controversy, raises questions and identifies areas which need further research.

Structure of the literature review

The overall structure of your review will depend largely on your own thesis or research area. What you will need to do is to group together and compare and contrast the varying opinions of different writers on certain topics. What you must not do is just describe what one writer says, and then go on to give a general overview of another writer, and then another, and so on. Your structure should be dictated instead by topic areas, controversial issues or by questions to which there are varying approaches and theories. Within each of these sections, you would then discuss what the different literature argues, remembering to link this to your own purpose.

Linking words are important. If you are grouping together writers with similar opinions, you would use words or phrases such as:

similarly, in addition, also, again

More importantly, if there is disagreement, you need to indicate clearly that you are aware of this by the use of linkers such as:

however, on the other hand, conversely, nevertheless

At the end of the review you should include a summary of what the literature implies, which again links to your hypothesis or main question.

Writing the review

You first need to decide what you need to read. In many cases you will be given a booklist or directed towards areas of useful published work. Make sure you use this help. With dissertations, and particularly theses, it will be more down to you to decide. It is important, therefore, to try and decide on the parameters of your research. What exactly are your objectives and what do you need to find out? In your review, are you looking at issues of theory, methodology, policy, quantitive research, or what? Before you start reading it may be useful to compile a list of the main areas and questions involved, and then read with the purpose of finding out about or answering these. Unless something comes up which is particularly important, stick to this list, as it is very easy to get sidetracked, particularly on the internet.

A good literature review needs a clear line of argument. You therefore need to use the critical notes and comments you made whilst doing your reading to express an academic opinion. Make sure that:

• you include a clear, short introduction which gives an outline of the review, including the main topics covered and the order of the arguments, with a brief rationale for this.

• there is always a clear link between your own arguments and the evidence uncovered in your reading. Include a short summary at the end of each section.
Use quotations if appropriate.

• you always acknowledge opinions which do not agree with your thesis. If you ignore opposing viewpoints, your argument will in fact be weaker.

Your review must be written in a formal, academic style. Keep your writing clear and concise, avoiding colloquialisms and personal language. You should always aim to be objective and respectful of others’ opinions; this is not the place for emotive language or strong personal opinions. If you thought something was rubbish, use words such as “inconsistent”, “lacking in certain areas” or “based on false assumptions”! (See Guide 1.21)

When introducing someone’s opinion, don’t use “says”, but instead an appropriate verb which more accurately reflects this viewpoint, such as “argues”, “claims” or “states”. Use the present tense for general opinions and theories, or the past when referring to specific research or experiments:

Although Trescothick (2001) argues that attack is the best form of defence, Boycott (1969) claims that …

In a field study carried out amongst the homeless of Sydney, Warne (1999) found that …

And remember at all times to avoid plagiarising your sources. Always separate your source opinions from your own hypothesis. making sure you consistently reference the literature you are referring to. When you are doing your reading and making notes, it might be an idea to use different colours to distinguish between your ideas and those of others. (See Guide 1.13).

Final checklist

Here is a final checklist, courtesy of the University of Melbourne:

Selection of Sources

Have you indicated the purpose of the review?
Are the parameters of the review reasonable?
Why did you include some of the literature and exclude others?
Which years did you exclude?
Have you emphasised recent developments?
Have you focussed on primary sources with only selective use of secondary sources?
Is the literature you have selected relevant?
Is your bibliographic data complete?

Critical Evaluation of the Literature

Have you organised your material according to issues?
Is there a logic to the way you organised the material?
Does the amount of detail included on an issue relate to its importance?
Have you been sufficiently critical of design and methodological issues?
Have you indicated when results were conflicting or inconclusive and discussed possible reasons?
Have you indicated the relevance of each reference to your research?

Interpretation

Has your summary of the current literature contributed to the reader’s understanding of the problems?
Does the design of your research reflect the methodological implications of the literature review?

Note

The literature review will be judged in the context of your completed research.
The review needs to further the reader’s understanding of the problem and whether it provides a rationale for your research.


張玲:

復制粘貼一個言簡意賅,簡單粗暴的回答。

哥們你想的太復雜了。

文獻綜述就是要羅列和概括出你的論文中所引用的資料文獻出處。說白了就是告訴大家你的論文都在哪抄的,你是怎麼找到的,重點是在哪抄的,而不是你抄了啥?明白了吧。

一篇完整的論文必須要有文獻綜述,在論文最後還要有參考文獻索引。

文獻綜述就是針對你論文的題目和內容,你是如何研究的,如何參考別人的研究成果的。說白了,就是你論文的課題過去別人研究到什麼程度了,你得借鏡吧。

意思是這個意思,但你還不能在文獻綜述把你準備抄的都寫上,建議你就寫一些簡單的、淺顯的內容在裡面。

哥們,文獻綜述可不是論文的一個濃縮概括,而是「承前啟後」中的「承前」。

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